This is an ongoing bibliography of secondary material:

  • Bakhtin, M. M., Oeuvre de Rabelais et la culture populaire au moyen age et sous la renaissance, (Paris, 1970).
  • Beaudelaire, Charles, Variétés critiques, volume I: La Peintre romantique et volume II: Modernité et surnaturalisme, 3˚ édition, (1924), accessed atèquedel’INHA on 30/06/2015.
  • Bergson, Henri, Le rire. Essai sur la signification du comique, 1900 (Paris, Éditions Alcan, 1924), reproduced by Bertrand Gibier for the collection “les classiques des sciences sociales”,, accessed 12/07/2016.
  • Boespflug, François, ‘Brève histoire de la caricature des figures majeures du christianisme’, Théologiques, vol. 17, no. 2, 2009, pp. 85-110. Accessed at, 22 April 2016.
  • Champfleury, Charles, Histoire de la caricature moderne, (Paris, Dentu: Librairie de la société des gens de lettres, 1870).
  • Cholvy, Gérard and Hilaire, Yves-Marie, Histoire Religieuse de la France Contemporaine, 1800-1880, (Toulouse, Éditions Privat, 1985).
  • Cubitt, Geoffrey, The Jesuit Myth: Conspiracy Theory and Politics in Nineteenth Century France, (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993).
    Dentith, Simon, Parody, (London, Routledge, 2000).
  • Devlin, Judith, The Superstitious mind: French peasants and the Supernatural in the Nineteenth Century, (New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1987).
  • Doizy, Guillaume, « De la caricature anticléricale à la farce biblique », Archives de sciences sociales des religions [En ligne], 134 | avril – juin 2006, mis en ligne le 18 octobre 2009, consulté le 22 avril 2016. URL : http:// ; DOI : 10.4000/assr.3660.
  • Douglas, Mary, Purity and Danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo, (Taylor and Francis, 2002),
  • Fontane, Charles, Un maître de la caricature: André Gill, (Paris, Éditions de l’Ibis, 1827).
  • Ford, Caroline, Divided Houses: Religion and Gender in Modern France, (Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 2005).
  • Getty, Clive F., The Diary of J.J. Grandville and the Missouri Album: The Life of an Opposition Caricaturist and Romantic Book Illustrator in Paris Under the July Monarchy, (Madison [N.J.] : Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2010).
  • Goldstein, Robert Justin, Censorship of Political Caricature in nineteenth-century France, (Kent, Kent State University Press, 1989).
  • Gombrich, E. H., Art and Illusion: a study in the psychology of pictorial representation, (London, Phaldon, 1972).
  • Griffiths, Richard, The Use of Abuse: the polemics of the Dreyfus Affair and its Aftermath, (New York, Berg, 1991).
  • Harpham, Geoffrey, “The Grotesque: First Principles” in The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol 34; No. 4 (Summer, 1976), pp. 461-468, accessed at on 09/02/2016.
  • Hannoosh, Michele, Baudelaire and caricature: from the comic to the art of modernity, (University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992).
  • Hofmann, Werner, Caricature from Leonardo to Picasso, (New York, Crown Publishers, 1957).
  • Hutcheon, Linda, Irony’s edge: the theory and politics of irony, (London, Routledge, 1995).
  • Kenney, Elise; Merriman, John M.; Mount Holyoke College. Art Museum, The Pear: French graphic arts in the golden age of caricature, (South Hadley, Mass.: Mount Holyoke College Art Museum, 1991).
  • Kerr, David, Caricature and French political culture, 1830-1848 : Charles Philipon and the illustrated press, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000).
  • Korsmeyer, Carolyn, Savouring Disgust: The foul and the fair in aesthetics, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010).
  • Leighten, Patricia, ‘The World Turned Upside Down: Modernism and Anarchist Strategies of Inversion in L’assiette au beurre, The Journal of Modern Periodical Studies, vol 4, no. 2, (Penn State University Press: 2013), pp. 133-170.
  • Le Men, Ségolène (dir.), L’art de la caricature, (Paris, Presses universitaires de Paris Ouest, 2011).
  • Lethève, Jacques, La caricature et la presse sous la IIIe république, (Paris, Armand Colin, 1961).
  • MacInnes, John, “Essential Laughter: Baudelaire’s De L’Essence du Rire” in French Forum, Vol. 12: no. 1 (January, 1987), pp. 55-64, accessed at on 29/12/2015.
  • McManners, John, Church and State in France, 1870-1914,(London, SPCK, 1972).
  • McMillan, James, F., ‘Remaking Catholic Europe: Louis Veuillot and the Ultramontane Project’, Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte, vol. 14, no. 1 (2001), pp. 112-122.
  • Menon, Elizabeth Korbinger, The Complete Mayeux: the use and abuse of a French icon, (Bern, Peter Lang, 1997).
  • Miller, William, Anatomy of Disgust, (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1997).
  • Morreal, John, The Philosophy of Laughter and Humour, (Albany, State University of New York Press, 1987).
  • Nye, Robert, Masculinity and male codes of honour in modern France, (New York, Oxford University Press; ebrary inc., 1993).
  • Palmer, Jerry, ‘Parody and Decorum: Permission to Mock’ in Beyond a Joke, ed. Sharon Lockyer and Michael Pickering, (Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
  • Rosanvallon, P., La contre-démocratie : la politique à l’âge de la défiance, (Paris, Seuil, 2006).
  • Rose, Margaret, Parody: Ancient, modern and post-modern, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993).
  • Veuillot, Louis, Mélanges religieux, historiques, politiques et littéraires, (1842-1913, Paris), sourced from cb31568258d. Accessed 8 May 2016.
  • Wechsler, Judith, A human comedy : physiognomy and caricature in 19th century Paris, (1982).
  • Wilson, Robert Radon, The Hydra’s Tale: Imagining Disgust, (Edmonton, University of Alberta Press, 2002).
  • Zeldin, Theodore, Conflicts in French Society: anticlericalism, education and morals in the nineteenth century, (London, George Allen and Unwin LTD, 1970).

Only Joking

This blog will showcase thoughts on a PhD thesis project looking into the subjecthood of the nineteenth century French caricaturist. Started in 2015, this thesis is a part of a wider network of three PhDs and is sponsored by the White Rose Consortium of Arts and Humanities. The combined project is an analysis of the social and historical consequences of the Charlie Hebdo attacks. This project takes a multidisciplinary approach to the history of caricature, using perspectives from history, history of art, politics and ethics to understand the motivations and the aims of celebrated artists between 1830 and 1914 whose principal output was both humorous and offensive. This project hopes to establish to what extent the caricaturists believed they had a right to offend and whether they valued their political interventions. This is important to understand on what grounds they expected to be tolerated by the political, artistic and social milieux who received and reacted to their art. This in turn will be useful to establish whether there is a tradition in French satirical art which has led to the present caricature culture and social expectations of caricature. A particular focus will be made on anticlerical attacks to establish a clear link between the nineteenth century and the Charlie Hebdo attacks.